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Bychykhin_Olexandr/iStock(NEW YORK) -- With Christmas just a week away, millions of Americans will soon be hitting the roads and skies to gather with their loved ones. But they’ll likely be joined by an unwanted passenger on their travels: Germs.

Whiles airplanes, trains and buses are some of the fastest ways to get around during the holidays, they also increase your chance of getting sick. So how can you protect yourself while traveling this holiday season?

Dr. Nick Testa, the chief medical officer at Dignity Health in Los Angeles, shares his tips with ABC News’ Gio Benitez in the video below:

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sestovic/iStock(WASHINGTON) -- The U.S. surgeon general is warning against the use of e-cigarettes, declaring Tuesday that any "use among young people is unsafe" and telling parents to be on the lookout for vaping devices that look like computer flash drives.

It's a considerably sterner and more specific warning than in 2016, when the same federal office identified vaping as an emerging public health concern. Since then, studies have shown a sharp uptick among young people using the devices and companies that sell the liquid nicotine in flavors that appeal to teens.

U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams, known as the "nation's doctor," said of particular concern is the availability of new products, including ones shaped like a USB flash drive. The office has released photos of what the devices look like as a resource to parents.

One such device made by the company JUUL saw a 600 percent surge in sales in recent years, according to Adams. And a typical JUUL cartridge, or "pod," contains about as much nicotine as a pack of 20 regular cigarettes, his office stated.

JUUL has said its goal is to help adult smokers by providing them with a "true alternative" to combustible cigarettes. The company has rolled out an age-verification system for its products and also offered to rein in sales of flavored vaping devices popular with younger consumers, including mango, creme and cucumber.

But the industry's response wasn't enough to preempt the surgeon general from issuing its official nationwide warning Tuesday.

"These products also use nicotine salts, which allow particularly high levels of nicotine to be inhaled more easily and with less irritation than the free-base nicotine that has traditionally been used in tobacco products, including e-cigarettes," according to the surgeon general.

"This is of particular concern for young people, because it could make it easier for them to initiate the use of nicotine through these products and also could make it easier to progress to regular e-cigarette use and nicotine dependence," the office added.

E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that turn liquid nicotine into an vapor that can be inhaled. E-cigarettes have been pushed by manufacturers as an alternative to tobacco cigarettes because it doesn't produce tar.

As a general rule, doctors say it's not safe to casually inhale any type of smoke or chemical vapor. In addition to its addictiveness, nicotine can have damaging developmental effects on the human brain for people younger than 25, according to health experts.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates 1 in 5 high school students use the products. That's more than three million current e-cigarette users in the nation's high schools, up from 220,000 students in 2011, according to the CDC.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has imposed fines on e-cigarette retailers for unlawfully selling e-cigarette products to minors.

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Sasiistock/iStock(NEW YORK) -- A new test developed by a working mom that touts its ability to analyze the nutritional value of your breast milk has the new moms community abuzz, though some doctors remain unconvinced about the science behind it.

New mom Casey Gorham said she first noticed that her son, Sequoia, was having problems gaining weight two weeks after birth.

"My baby just kept getting smaller. His arms were getting smaller. His bones were sticking out," she told ABC News' Good Morning America. "He just looked small. It was very concerning, especially as a first-time mom."

After consulting her pediatrician, Gorham said she began using a new breast milk testing kit from a company called Lactation Lab. The company measures calories, carbohydrates, protein and fat content present in a new mom's breast milk by examining a frozen sample of the milk that the mom ships to their lab.

Then, in three to five business days the results are sent back, along with nutritional recommendations to improve the quality of the breast milk.

Gorham said she followed the company's recommendations, and as she began making "changes to my diet" her son started "gaining weight."

"My calorie count went up for my milk," she added. "The kit really helped me and just reassured me a lot."

Dr. Stephanie Canale, the founder of Lactation Lab, described the process as "sort of like a food label for your breast milk."

"Milk does change significantly from mother to mother. But I think for a lot of moms, there's so much pressure to breast feed," Canale said. "We know it's a good thing. And it's really hard. And so I think for some, just knowing what's in their milk or if they can learn how to make it better."

Canale, a Los Angeles-based doctor who specializes in family medicine, said she developed the test out of her own frustration as a working mom of two, after her second child's weight stalled through breast feeding.

"I felt like a failure," Canale said. "I really don't want another mom to go through what I did ... or feel like the way I did."

Canale said their test is evidence-based and that they conducted a study of 30 women to learn about what was in their breast milk.

"What we found is that ... they were given specific dietary recommendations and then they retested their milk," she said. "And those women actually went on to breastfeed for longer than expected, because they were reassured."

Of the 30 women, 28 reported they continued past the six months of exclusive breast feeding that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends, though it is unclear if the women would have continued anyway.

Lactation Lab isn't alone in offering these tests, as companies like MyMilk and EverlyWell also offer them.

But the tests aren't cheap: Lactation Lab charges $99 for a basic evaluation and $349 for premium kits, which also measure fatty acids and so-called toxins, and can take 14 to 20 days to process.

Currently, there are no independent studies that verify the accuracy of these tests, which is why some doctors remain unconvinced by the claims behind them, or the need for them.

Dr. Wendy Sue Swanson, a pediatrician and chief of digital innovation at Seattle Children's hospital, told GMA that all breast milk is not created equal.

"Breast milk isn't the same on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday. It is not the same in the morning or at night. It is not even the same at the beginning of a nursing session and at the end," she said. "So the way that samples are collected concerns me that it won't give a global picture of a complete nutrition."

"I think we have to take a really careful look at what this puts out to the world and how this really affects moms who are just trying to do their best, supporting themselves and their babies," she added.

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Brian Ach/Getty Images for POPSUGAR Play/Ground(NEW YORK) -- Actress Kate Hudson has partnered with Weight Watchers, becoming the company's newest ambassador.

The How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days actress and owner of activewear brand Fabletics announced her role in an Instagram video post on Sunday, in which she spoke with Oprah Winfrey, another spokeswoman for the brand.

Winfrey welcomed Hudson to the Weight Watchers family in the video and asked what specifically drove her to work with the brand.

"Well Oprah, my 'why' is really my kids, and my family, and longevity and wanting to be here as long as I possibly can," Hudson said. "It's really about the holistic approach to wellness."

Hudson will be a face for the brand's new "For Every Body" campaign.

“Health and wellness is my number one and I always say that what works for me doesn’t work for everyone,” she wrote alongside the post. “I believe that we need to celebrate diversity in how each individual wants to celebrate their bodies.”

“I’ve become an ambassador for the WW family because it is the perfect community for people to live healthy their own way and I love sharing this knowledge with you all!” she continued.

Hudson said Weight Watchers accepts everyone who is looking to embrace a lifestyle change.

“This is not a community for people who just want to lose weight, although leading a healthy lifestyle lends itself to such. This is a community about supporting each other through a life long journey of wellness,” she said.

Hudson first expressed her newfound commitment to wellness in an Instagram post at the end of November.

She said that since giving birth to her third child, daughter Rani Rose Hudson Fujikawa, at the beginning of October, she was ready to start spending some time exploring her own wellness.

“The routine with our baby is getting more familiar and I’m ready to start taking a little time in the day focusing on myself,” she said. “For me that means my health. Why? Because I wanna be around a long time for these three kiddos of mine.”

“I know that some are curious about what that means and for all you moms (whether working or not working moms) it is the most challenging thing in the world to balance kids and personal time,” she continued.

Her goal is to lose 25 pounds before shooting an upcoming film in the spring but she realizes how difficult it can be to take time for yourself as a working mother.

“Let’s be honest, kids take the number one position and it’s haaaaard to make the time for yourself," she noted. "I’ve been doing a lot of research and I’ve spent my life time trying all kinds of new things that are focused on health and wellness. Because I am on a mission right now to get back to my fighting weight."

To document her fitness journey, Hudson created a social platform, Pretty Happy, in which she shares healthy meals and workout suggestions.

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FatCamera/iStock(NEW YORK) -- In a new policy statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is urging doctors around the country to increase screening of women for perinatal depression, which affects women during pregnancy and up to a year after delivery.

The report, released Monday on the AAP's website, is the most recent guidance on perinatal depression offered by the AAP since 2010.

An estimated one out of every nine women in the U.S. suffer from perinatal depression, with some states reporting rates as high as one out of every five women, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Yet despite major medical organizations recommending screening for it over the past several years, half of all women in the U.S. remain undiagnosed and untreated, studies show.

The authors of the new AAP policy attribute the current low rates of perinatal screening depression to the stigma associated with mental health conditions, system level challenges when it comes to training providers and paying them to screen, and parents’ hesitation to admit to emotional struggles.

“Mothers have their own fears -- fear of judgment for dealing with mental health issues or being seen as an inadequate mother,” Dr. Barbara Robles, a psychiatrist and faculty at the Long School of Medicine at UT Health San Antonio who was not involved in the AAP's new report, told ABC News.

The consequences of not receiving adequate care in a timely fashion can be serious for both mom and the baby.

“We know that postpartum depression can be a form of toxic stress that can affect an infant’s brain development and cause problems with family relationships, breastfeeding and the child’s medical treatment,” Dr. Jason Rafferty, a coauthor of the report, said in a statement released by the AAP.

The AAP recommends doctors screen mothers for depression once during pregnancy and again at each of their baby's 1, 2, 4 and 6-month checkups. The organization also encourages pediatricians to identify community resources that can help mothers who screen positive for the condition.

The authors of the policy statement also say fathers can be in a vulnerable position following the arrival of a new baby.

“Fathers also experience a high rate of postpartum depression and need to be supported, identified and referred for treatment," Dr. Michael Yogman, also a coauthor of the AAP's report, said in a statement.

Beyond physician screening, there are ways we can all help new moms and dads. Robles suggests starting by putting a check on our expectations of new parents.

“Do not expect a new mother to be calling you to FaceTime or call you to go out to dinner frequently in those early months” she said.

Robles also suggests we check in frequently with new parents and offer to be helpful by dropping off meals, watching the baby while the new parents nap and, most importantly, listening to them without judging.

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Ellenmck/iStock(WASHINGTON) -- A federal judge’s ruling late Friday striking down the Affordable Care Act in its entirety has stoked anxiety among millions of Americans who rely on subsidized health insurance and millions more who have pre-existing conditions.

Even if you don’t have an Obamacare health plan, experts say there are far-reaching implications for all consumers if the decision is allowed to stand.

Here’s what you need to know:

What does the federal court ruling mean?


Federal Judge Reed O'Connor of the Northern District of Texas declared the individual mandate of the Affordable Care Act unconstitutional and, as a result, the entire law invalid. If the decision stands, it would wipe out all aspects of Obamacare, including protections for pre-existing conditions, preventive benefits coverage in all plans, mandate that children can remain on their parents’ plans up to age 26, expansion of Medicaid, premium subsidies and efforts to phase out the prescription drug donut hole in Medicare.

O’Connor issued a stay on his decision – meaning, it will not immediately take effect – while supporters of the ACA appeal the ruling to higher courts.

Didn’t the Supreme Court already uphold Obamacare in 2012?


Yes. In 2012, the Supreme Court reasoned that while government cannot order citizens to buy something, Obamacare’s "shared-responsibility payment" (a.k.a. penalty) for not having an insurance plan effectively amounts to a tax, which is an acceptable government practice.

Last year, however, congressional Republicans – unsuccessful in their bid to repeal and replace Obamacare – moved to eliminate the individual mandate in effect. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 reduced the shared-responsibility payment to zero, effective January 1, 2019. In other words, the government will no longer financially penalize, or tax, people who don’t buy insurance.

Judge O’Connor reasoned that because the individual mandate will no longer collect revenue, it is no longer considered a tax. He concluded it is “impermissible under the Interstate Commerce Clause—meaning the Individual Mandate is unconstitutional."

Does the ruling mean people will immediately lose benefits?


No. Because Judge O’Connor stayed his decision, nothing will change immediately as appeals proceed. If you have an Obamacare plan, it remains valid and any premium subsidy received will continue. Insurers are still forbidden from denying coverage or charging higher premiums for people with pre-existing conditions. All insurance plans are still required to provide a basic standard of benefits without lifetime caps as the law states.

What happens next?


A group of Democratic state attorneys general led by California plans to appeal the decision to the 5th Circuit US Court of Appeals in New Orleans. That process is expected to take several months. Ultimately the case is expected to land at the US Supreme Court within the next couple of years.

What is Plan B if the entire law is struck down?


It's up to Congress to enact an Obamacare alternative if the courts strike down the ACA, and we've seen the gridlock on that front. There is not currently a viable alternative to the law that can pass the House and Senate and get signed into law by President Trump. Republicans were unsuccessful at repealing and replacing the law in 2017 when they controlled both chambers and the White House.

While President Trump has promised to protect Americans who have relied on Obamacare insurance subsidies and pre-existing conditions protections, the administration has not said how it would respond to a decision striking down the law.

How disruptive will it be if the courts abruptly eliminate Obamacare?


Industry groups and independent health care analysts say wiping out Obamacare without an alternative would mean a highly disruptive shift in the health care of millions of Americans.

The Affordable Care Act has sharply reduced the number of uninsured Americans since 2010, covering 20 million more people than if the law had not taken effect, according to the nonpartisan Kaiser Family Foundation.

An estimated 52 million Americans have pre-existing health conditions that insurers could‘ve denied coverage to under pre-ACA rules in most states, the Foundation says.

If millions were to lose insurance coverage at once, the costs for all consumers could skyrocket, says Kaiser health care analyst Larry Leavitt.

“If this Texas decision on the ACA is upheld, it would throw the individual insurance market and the whole health care system into complete chaos,” Leavitt posted on Twitter.

“Maybe less obvious are the implications of the Texas ACA decision on the health care industry,” he said. “More uncompensated care with more uninsured; completely upending Medicare payment systems changed by the ACA; repeal of tax increases that funded the ACA; No more employer mandate.”

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LILLIAN SUWANRUMPHA/AFP/Getty Images(BANGKOK) -- Miss Philippines Catriona Gray took home the crown at the 2018 Miss Universe pageant on Sunday night in Bangkok, Thailand, but she wasn’t the only winner of the night.

Miss Spain’s Angela Ponce became the competition’s first transgender contestant, a major step for the 66-year-old pageant.

Ponce didn’t make the competition's top 20 but was still grateful to be there.

“What an honor and pride to be part of the history of @missuniverse,” she wrote in an Instagram post.

She went on, “This is for you, for those who have no visibility, no voice, because we all deserve a world of respect, inclusion and freedom. And today I am here, proudly representing my nation, all women and human rights.”

During the competition, the 27-year-old received a standing ovation while walking the runway.

"My hope is for tomorrow to be able to live in a world of equality for everyone, simply for us all to understand that we are human and that we must make all our lives easier together," she said in a segment that aired during the show. “That reality for many people is going to change.”

"If I can give that to the world, I don't need to win Miss Universe, I only need to be here,” she added.

Ponce was crowned Miss Spain in June.

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sestovic/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Cigarettes and other drugs have taken a backseat to vaping as more teens partake in the activity, making it second only to alcohol in substances used, according to a new survey.

The National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded Monitoring the Future survey looked at vaping rates in teens for the second year in 2018, and found a dramatic increase in the number of teens who used the devices -- from 27.8 percent of 12th-graders to 37.3 percent who reported “any vaping” in the past 12 months. That includes students who vaped nicotine, marijuana or hash oil or just flavoring.

The survey assessed drug, alcohol and nicotine and tobacco use -- as well as attitudes toward them -- in students in the eighth, 10th and 12th grades in hopes of identifying and responding to unhealthy trends.

“It is important for the public to know these numbers in order to most effectively target prevention efforts to the areas of adolescent substance use where they’re most needed,” Dr. Wilson Compton, deputy director of NIDA, told ABC News.

“Adolescence is a key time for prevention,” he added. “It is when the majority of people will try substances for the first time and it is also a key developmental period for the brain.”

The increase in vaping rates translates into about 1.3 million more teens vaping within a single year, wrote Dr. Richard Miech, the lead researcher from the University of Michigan who worked on the survey, in The New England Journal of Medicine.

These numbers are concerning because vaping devices can normalize drug-taking behavior and increase a teen’s chances of substance abuse in the future, Compton said.

“The younger someone is when they first take a drug, the more vulnerable they are to developing an addiction in the future,” he told ABC News. “The teen brain is still developing and is, therefore, more vulnerable to the negative effects of substances, including nicotine. Nicotine primes the brain to the rewarding effects of other drugs.”

In the 30 days before taking the survey, the number of 12th-graders who specifically reported vaping nicotine nearly doubled from 11 percent in 2017 to 20.9 percent in 2018.

“Teens are clearly attracted to the marketable technology and flavorings seen in vaping devices,” Dr. Nora D. Volkow, director of NIDA, said in a press release. “However, it is urgent that teens understand the possible effects of vaping on overall health, the development of the teen brain and the potential for addiction.”

“Research tells us that teens who vape may be at risk for transitioning to regular cigarettes, so while we have celebrated our success in lowering their rates of tobacco use in recent years, we must continue aggressive educational efforts on all products containing nicotine,” she added.

Compared to vaping, the survey found that the use of other substances either remained stable or showed signs of decline, including with alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, prescription opioids, heroin, synthetic drugs and more.

“The good news contained in these results is also important to share with the public,” Compton said. “Teens should know that the majority of their peers are not using drugs.”

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tetmc/iStockBY: Dr. Edith Bracho-Sanchez

(NEW YORK) -- Frequent sexual activity leads to greater enjoyment of life for men -- but not for women, a new study has found.

For women, frequent kissing, petting, fondling, and feeling emotionally close to their partner was associated with higher enjoyment of life.

In a study of almost 7,000 people ages 50-89 in England, researchers correlated self-reported sexual activity in the past year with greater enjoyment of life in men and women.

Frequent sexual activity was defined by the study's authors as having sex more than twice per month, according to the study.

The data was obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, an ongoing long-term study of the English population above 50. Researchers examined sexual activity as a modifiable target in overall well-being, which has in turn been correlated with positive health outcomes.

“Previous research has suggested that frequent sexual intercourse is associated with a range of benefits for psychological and physiological well-being, such as improved quality of life and mental health, and lower risk of certain cancers and fatal coronary events,” said Dr. Lee Smith, Reader in Exercise Medicine at Anglia Ruskin University in a press release.

Although the women in this study did not report higher enjoyment of life following frequent sexual activity, previous studies in older women have associated sexual pleasure, and specifically orgasms, with increased longevity.

Beyond the benefits for individual men and women, encouraging older adults to have more sex may be beneficial to the health care system.

"Promoting well-being in later life is a public health priority…If encouraging and supporting people to continue to enjoy a healthy sex life in old age could help to boost well-being, there may be benefits both for the individual and for the sustainability of health services,” said Dr. Sarah Jackson from the UCL Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care in a press release.

Yet English adults have been shown to decrease their sexual activity substantially with age.

In a 2016 study, 94 percent of adults in their fifties reported being sexually active, which progressively declined to 31 percent in adults over 80.

Similar trends have been observed in American adults.

The authors acknowledge the type of study they conducted -- anonymous, self-administered questionnaires at only one point in time -- does not allow them to establish frequent sex as the cause of greater life enjoyment, as it is also possible that those who enjoy life more are in turn more likely to have sex.

Edith Bracho-Sanchez is a board-certified pediatrician, a Stanford Global Health and Journalism Fellow, and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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nechaev-kon/iStock(NEW YORK) --  The Zika virus epidemic of 2015 resulted in thousands of Brazilian babies being born with severe brain defects after the virus was transmitted to pregnant mothers from mosquitoes. It became a public health emergency around the world because scientists weren’t prepared; they didn’t understand the virus, its transmission or how to treat the defects that it caused.

In an effort to prevent history from repeating itself, scientists are now working to develop effective vaccines for Rift Valley fever, another mosquito-borne disease that poses a risk to unborn children. Though the disease is uncommon in humans, it can spread rapidly. Since there aren’t human treatments for it, the World Health Organization says there is an “urgent need for accelerated research and development.”

In a new study, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research, lay the groundwork for a vaccine.

“What we don’t want is a situation like Zika again, where the virus emerges and then we learn that it has detrimental effects on developing babies,” Amy Hartman, Ph.D., the lead author of the study, told ABC News.

Although Rift Valley fever has only been reported in Africa and the Middle East, the species of mosquitoes that have been identified as able to transmit the virus — Aedes and Culex — can also be found in The United States and Europe.

Hartman said that with climate change, the urgency to find a vaccine is amplified.

“With the climate changing, the mosquito habitats are expanding. This changes the areas of the world where mosquito-borne illness, including Rift Valley fever, will be found,” said Hartman, an assistant professor of infectious diseases and microbiology in Pitt’s Graduate School of Public Health.

Human cases of the fever during pregnancy have not been studied on a large scale yet. Outbreaks have mostly been in remote areas of African nations like Madagascar, Kenya and The Republic of Niger, and those who were affected were people who worked in the vicinity of slaughtered animals, such as cattle, camels, lamb, sheep and ewes.

The outbreaks in these animals have led to high rates of miscarriages in those that were pregnant. Ewes, for example, experienced a miscarriage rate of 100 percent, according to WHO. There is a vaccine for livestock, but not for humans.

To give them a better idea of how the virus may affect humans, Hartman and her colleagues developed the first lab-friendly rodent model to study the virus’ gestational impact. In their study, the researchers showed that Rift Valley fever could be transmitted from pregnant mother to child through the placenta, resulting in high rates of stillbirths. There were no outward signs of disease, just like with Zika.

“Our model is similar to what is seen in livestock,” Cynthia McMillen, Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher in Hartman’s lab, said in a press release. “The adults may have little or no disease symptoms, but still have significant damage to the placenta and their offspring. This observed pathology and vertical transmission of the virus can explain how Rift Valley fever virus infection leads to fetal demise.”

When the researchers tested the virus in human placental tissue, they found similar results. In fact, not only was the virus successful in infecting the tissue, it was even better at passing through the mother-child barrier than other vertically transmitted viruses, such as Zika.

“Zika has to take smaller ‘side roads’ through the placenta, and it’s a less efficient process. That’s why not all women who contract Zika go on to have babies with congenital defects,” said Carolyn Coyne, Ph.D., professor of pediatrics at UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh and a leading expert on viral infections of the placenta, in a press release.

“But Rift Valley fever virus has mechanisms that overcome the placenta’s antiviral strategies. It takes ‘the expressway’ to get into the placenta fastest and easiest,” Coyne added. “Rift Valley fever is more pathogenic in fetal tissue than Zika ever has been.”

While Hartman and her colleagues work on laying the groundwork for a vaccine, she has advice for the rest of us.

“Right now, the main thing to take away would be education,” she said. People should be aware that this virus has the potential to affect fetuses, and they should “take utmost precaution to prevent mosquito bites. Since we don’t have a vaccine yet, it would be an awareness effort.”

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maroke/iStock(NEW YORK) -- The Seattle school district joined dozens of school districts around the country in the fall of 2016 by delaying the start of school. Under the new rules, instead of beginning at 7:50 a.m., class began at 8:45 a.m.

This gave researchers at the University of Washington an opportunity to determine just how much teens need sleep. In a new study, they used activity monitors to study a group of high school sophomores before and after the changes were implemented and found that with later start times, students were not only getting an extra half-hour of sleep, their grades had improved by nearly five percentage points.

Sleep is important for everyone, but even more so for teens, who are constantly losing sleep because of their busy schedules. Here’s why they need it even more:

Losing sleep puts teen health at risk and can lower their performance

Studies have shown that teens who don’t get enough sleep are at increased risk of having a variety of health problems, including obesity, depression and even hypertension. Teens who lose sleep also risk poorer school performance and drowsy driving, which can increase their risk for car crashes that result in injuries or death.

A variety of factors keep teens awake.

There are many reasons for teens’ lack of sleep. Between extracurricular activities, school work, their social lives, new jobs, it seems there’s hardly any time for sleep.

Many teens are also often on their cell phones and electronics late into the night. Although their conversations with friends might keep them awake on their own, electronics have also been shown to emit blue light, which delays the time at which melatonin, the hormone that triggers sleepiness, is released.

Because of that, many phone manufacturers have started to include light settings on their phones so that they switch to red light after sundown — a color of light that does not suppress melatonin.

Still, even with these modifications, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends enforcing a media curfew at home — a time when all electronics are turned off and removed from the bedroom.

Beyond electronics and responsibilities, puberty itself is known to change the biological clock of teens, shifting their sleep cycles to later in the night and making it harder for them to fall asleep early.

Napping can help teens who feel drowsy but it’s not a long-term solution.

Afternoon naps, sleeping in on weekends and drinking coffee can improve sleepiness in the short-term, but they shouldn’t be considered a substitute for getting the right amount of sleep on a regular basis, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.

That’s because naps don’t actually restore optimal alertness in anyone. The Academy of Pediatrics recommends teens get between eight and 10 hours of sleep per night — a far cry from the average seven hours they actually get.

Getting a full night’s rest has been associated with improved attention, behavior, learning, memory and emotional regulation, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

Schools across the country are now recognizing the benefits of more sleep for their teens.

Organizations like the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Sleep Foundation have advocated for later school start times for the past few years.

When Minneapolis high schools changed start times from 7:15 a.m. to 8:40 a.m., teens reported getting an extra hour of sleep, a study from the University of Minnesota found. This, in turn, led to improvements in attendance and reductions in the number of dropouts.

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undefined undefined/iStock(ATLANTA) -- The E.coli outbreak in romaine lettuce has been linked to a single water reservoir on a farm in California.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration identified sediment from a farm as being the source for the November outbreak.

The CDC reported that the farm in question is owned by Adam Bros. Farming Inc., located in Santa Maria, California, about 160 miles northwest of Los Angeles.

Santa Barbara County is one of three California counties, along with San Benito and Monterey, that the CDC is advising consumers to avoid when choosing romaine lettuce. Some romaine products are now being labeled with their harvest regions.

In addition to romaine, the farm's website notes that it produces red and green leaf lettuce, celery, cauliflower and broccoli.

 Adams Bros. Farming is also recalling red leaf lettuce, green leaf lettuce and cauliflower harvested between Nov. 27 and Nov. 30 “out of an abundance of caution, because it may be contaminated” with the same strand of E. coli that was found in the earlier romaine, according to a statement it released on Thursday.

“The recall was initiated after it was discovered that sediment from a reservoir near where the produce was grown tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. Filtered and treated water from the reservoir may have come in contact with the produce after it was harvested. None of the filtered, treated water has tested positive for E. coli, all E. coli tests returning negative,” the farm said in the statement.

All told, there have been 59 reported cases in 15 states and the District of Columbia. Twenty-three people have been hospitalized.

Two individuals developed a type of kidney failure, though the CDC did not disclose the states where those individuals were located.

California and New Jersey had the most reported cases.

The illnesses were reported between Oct. 5 and Nov. 16.

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Nixxphotography/iStock(BENI, Democratic Republic of the Congo) -- A baby who was admitted to an Ebola treatment center in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo just six days after she was born is now recovered from the lethal virus, according to health officials who called her the "young miracle."

The newborn girl, named Benedicte, received treatment in the city of Beni, one of the current epicenters of the outbreak, after her Ebola-stricken mother died in childbirth on Oct. 31.

Benedicte was discharged Wednesday. The baby is said to be the youngest survivor thus far in the world's second-largest, second-deadliest Ebola outbreak.

"She went home in the arms of her father and aunt," the country's health ministry said in a statement Thursday

Pediatricians, intensive care specialists and nannies took turns watching over the infant 24 hours a day for over a month, according to the health ministry. The nannies at the Ebola treatment center in Beni are former patients who have recovered from the disease and are better able to care for sick children by wearing lighter protective gear.

"They play a fundamental role in caring for sick children who need more attention and a reassuring presence at their side during treatment," the health ministry said.

Global health organizations have sounded the alarm over the high number of young children infected in the current Ebola outbreak, which began on Aug. 1 and now has 515 confirmed and probable cases, resulting in 303 deaths, across two northeastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo bordering South Sudan, Uganda and Rwanda.

Children, who are at greater risk than adults of dying from the often-fatal type of hemorrhagic fever, account for more than one-third of all these cases, while one in 10 Ebola patients is a child under the age of 5, according to the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF).

"We are deeply concerned by the growing number of children confirmed to have contracted Ebola," Marie-Pierre Poirier, UNICEF’s regional director for West and Central Africa who returned this week from Beni, said in a statement Tuesday.

"The earlier children infected with Ebola receive treatment in a specialized health facility, the greater their chances of survival. Community mobilization and public awareness activities are also crucial to ensuring early detection and quick referral of suspected cases to Ebola treatment centers."

More than 400 children have been orphaned or left unaccompanied in this outbreak as their infected parents or caregivers are taken away for treatment or die, according to UNICEF, which said it has opened a kindergarten next to the Ebola treatment center in Beni "to assist the youngest children whose parents are isolated" there.

"Children are suffering a lot because of this epidemic –- both those who have lost parents or caregivers as well as those who have been infected themselves," Poirier said. "That’s why it’s imperative that children are put at the heart of the Ebola response."

This is the 10th outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the most severe that the country has seen since 1976, the year that scientists first identified the virus near the eponymous Ebola River.

The virus, which has a long incubation period of approximately eight to 21 days, is transmitted through contact with blood or secretions from an infected person, either directly or through contaminated surfaces, needles or medical equipment.

The ongoing outbreak is one of the world's worst, second only to the 2014-2016 outbreak in multiple West African nations that infected 28,652 people and killed 11,325, according to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

This is the first time that a vaccine for prevention and therapeutic treatments are available for use in an Ebola outbreak. Yet this epidemic has posed a number of challenges to health workers, as they struggle to contain the spread in both remote villages and densely populated urban areas amid sporadic attacks from armed groups and resistance from the local population in an area that had never before experienced an Ebola outbreak.

The World Health Organization, the global health arm of the United Nations, described the context of this outbreak as "unforgiving" in its latest assessment on Thursday.

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iStock/Thinkstock(CLARKSVILLE, Tenn.) -- A Tennessee doctor has been charged in connection with "a massive opioid distribution and healthcare fraud scheme," authorities said, accusing him of preying "upon an already addicted population" and engaging in "reckless disregard for patient safety."

Dr. Samson Orusa was charged in an indictment unsealed Thursday with "maintaining a drug-involved premises, 22 counts of unlawful distribution of a controlled substance outside the bounds of professional medical practice, 13 counts of healthcare fraud; and nine counts of money laundering."

If found guilty, Orusa could face up to 20 years in prison for each drug-related count and up to 10 years for healthcare and money laundering counts.

U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of Tennessee Dan Cochran alleges that Orusa opened up his practice with the purpose of distributing controlled substances such as oxycodone "not for legitimate medical purposes and beyond the bounds of medical practice," the indictment reads.

“Anyone who contributes to the opioid epidemic plaguing this nation should expect to be targeted by our law enforcement partners and held accountable,” Cohran said.

The indictment alleges that in 2015 Orusa prescribed what is known as "The Holy Trinity" of drugs which contains oxymorphone, Soma which is a muscle relaxer and alprazolam, an anti-anxiety drug. The combination is potentially dangerous and, in fact, according to the indictment, the patient who took the combination of drugs overdosed as a result.

The indictment alleges another patient overdosed on heroin in the waiting room of the doctor's office after being prescribed oxycodone and other "Schedule II drugs" which have a high potential for abuse. Orusa wrote almost 2,500 prescriptions for Schedule II drugs between July and August 2018, authorities said.

The pattern was so bad, they said, that on the same day this past September that the state of Tennessee revoked his pain management certificate, Orusa wrote 12,754 Schedule II controlled substance prescriptions.

The government also alleges that Orusa defrauded health insurance benefit providers such as Medicare and that he transferred money to disguise "the nature of the unlawful activity."

“The arrest of Dr. Orusa should serve as a warning to all doctors who fail to practice medicine in an ethical and responsible manner,” Special Agent in Charge D. Christopher Evans of the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) Louisville Field Division, which oversees DEA activity throughout Kentucky, Tennessee and West Virginia, said in a statement.

“The men and women of DEA are committed to using every available resource to stop the flow of drugs into our communities, especially when the drug dealer is a physician.”

Orusa has not responded to ABC News' request for comment.

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Rawpixel/iStock(NEW YORK) -- A Chicago couple who previously suffered two miscarriages recently welcomed a healthy baby boy thanks to a breakthrough new fertility test which helps women struggling with achieving a successful pregnancy by examining the mother's DNA.

The test is offering new hope to many family's struggling to conceive.

Carolyn Bilson and Tim O'Brien met three years ago, and say it was love at first sight.

"Literally a month later we knew, we wanted to have children," Bilson told ABC News' Good Morning America.

But after two miscarriages, Bilson, then pushing 40, said the couple sought help from a fertility specialist in Chicago who recommended in vitro fertilization.

Their first attempt at IVF, however, failed too, according to Bilson.

"I think it was just so devastating, because we didn't anticipate that," she said. "We thought the hard part would be getting pregnant, not staying pregnant."

O'Brien added that the most "frustrating thing" was that "you didn't learn anything from the previous miscarriage. So, there wasn't, 'What could we do differently?'"

The couple then learned about a new way to tailor fertility treatments specifically to the DNA of the mother, using a test that can help couples figure out the perfect time for conception, based on that DNA.

The Endometrial Receptivity Test uses a tissue sample to look at 238 genes to find out the optimum time for conception, thus increasing the couple's chance to conceive.

For Bilson, that time is two days later than the average woman.

Dr. Ilan Tur-Kaspa, an OB-GYN and the director of Chicago's Institute for Human Reproduction, described the process as "personalized medicine."

"This is what we are trying to do here by personalized medicine," Tur-Kaspa said, adding that you can "make sure" that "the uterus is ready, and optimize a time for implantation."

The result: Their beautiful baby Westley, who is now nine months old.

"We're so lucky," Bilson said. "We're so blessed."

OB-GYN Dr. Jessica Shepherd told GMA that this breakthrough new treatment is very exciting to the medical community because it offers another avenue for women who have recurrent miscarriages to potentially get pregnant, when it is something they never thought they could look forward to.

The new technique works by having a doctor take a sample of the women's endometrial tissue, which you can get DNA from, and from that DNA you can tell what part of the cycle is prime time to take the fertilized egg and implant it via IVF, Shepherd added.

Shepherd said that the ideal candidates are women who have had three or more miscarriages or women over 40, but emphasized that the test is not for everyone and infertility is a spectrum.

One risk of the procedure many women may not take into account is the emotional effects of it not working and you still miscarrying, Shepherd said. It is a new process and important to go over the risks of the procedure -- which can vary per person -- with your health care provider.

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